Glossary A
  • Additional ingredients

    Large number of organic and mineral supplements (eg, glue, clay, wax, artificial resins) and fillers (such as kaolin, chalk), and dyes. They are needed to give specific properties of different varieties of paper.

  • Annual capacity in tons

    Describes productivity of the paper machine or a factory for the production of paper.

  • Base paper

    Natural paper that is manufactured in a factory producing paper and then subjected to further processing outside the paper machine.

  • Belt width

    Paper is made mainly in the form of “infinite band”, which is limited with width of production installation. Rolls of tape are cut, so paper sheets of  “narrow” and “broad” format appear.

  • Bleaching

    After chemical treatment cellulose has different hues from yellow to brown. Therefore, the fibrous material is bleached. Different technologies are used for this. As a result you get white paper.

  • Bleaching with chlorine

    Elemental chlorine is used in the pulp production and bleaching to remove the lignin. Because of interaction between oxygen and lignin, paper becomes brittle and yellow. But wastewater, which appeared after chlorine bleaching, can be cleaned not sufficiently, and cause harmful environmental effects. Therefore, alternative technologies without chlorine bleaching are already being used. They do not have a harmful effect on the environment.

  • Blue Angel

    Environmentally-friendly label, approved by the Federal Office for the Environment of Germany. Cellulose used for these products must contain 100% recycled paper, which consists of at least 51% recycled and the lower middle class (group I, II, IV, V).

  • Bulk

    There is a hallmark of paper (such as book and magazine paper), which is estimated to determine the ratio of the height and weight of the paper sheet. Bulk is achieved by using a special technology of grinding materials and special process of dehydration in the paper machine.

  • Calender

    Machine in which paper is given a glazed finish by passing it between two or more rolls, either on or off the paper machine. Before winding in the roll paper is smoothed under the high pressure between steel rollers in the calender at the end of the paper machine. There are soft calenders, which use steel rolls and rolls of artificial materials.

  • Calendering

    Also referred to as “satin finishing”. This is mechanical smoothing of coated and uncoated paper during its manufacture. In this case the paper sheet is drawn between several rolls at very high pressure and temperature.

  • Cardboard

    According to the mass of surface unit it is located between the paper and thick cardboard. Distinguish between single-layer and multi-layer boards that can be pressed or glued. Multilayer pressed cardboard consists of several – not necessarily identical – layers of fibers that are individually made on cylindrical, fourdrinier or combined machines, and then combined when wet. The fibers of the individual layers are felted together (pressing), and then subjected to further processing, that is pressed and dried in the form of an endless belt.

  • Cellulose

    Pulp, which is obtained from plant material after chemical processing. This plant material, together with the main component, cellulose, contains other substances, such as hemicellulose, residual lignin and organic matters. Wood is mechanically shredded into pieces, which are impregnated with the cooking liquid, boiled and bleached during a few hours at high pressure and temperature. In the final step the pulp is dried and pressed into slabs or fed directly to a paper mill by pipeline.

  • Chalk overlay brushed paper

    Paper with the surface which was handled with mat coated substance without further satin. It refracts the light falling on it and paper seems to be mat.

  • Chalk overlay paper

    To obtain the coated surface and the best printability of paper, layer of a certain thickness coater composition is applied and distributed on the so-called base paper for coating. Due to this treatment, the paper surface is ennobled. There are various coating technology: using China-Clay, chalk, casein, dispersion of artificial materials. Coated with one side paper (thermal paper) and two sides matte paper, semi-matte and glazed paper and also paper grades, which are coated both on the paper machines or without them, form great variety of paper grades to print images and artwork.

  • Chlorine bleached paper

    Indicates the bleaching process in the manufacture of fibers. Paper is made from pulp bleached without elemental chlorine or chlorine compounds, called chlorine-free paper. Currently, the most common are oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. Paper with “low chlorine” refers to paper, bleaching fibers of which reduces the load on the sewage. Used in this case cellulose frequently bleached without chlorine gas (ECF), that uses instead chlorine dioxide.

  • Chromaticity coordinates

    Observer’s impression of paper whiteness. Whiteness can be bluish, reddish, greenish or yellowish. Chromaticity coordinates – is the value of the field of metrology. Different paper may have different impression, even if their brightness is the same.

  • Coating machine

    Machine for manufacture of chalk overlay paper. He transfers the paint to the surface of the base paper.

  • Colored paper

    Painted paper is the result of coloring and drawing patterns on it (in most cases by hand, do not confuse with colored paper).

  • Contactless printer

    Printers that work in non-contact mode (for example, laser printers, xerography, ink jet printers).

  • Cooking (pulping)

    Cellulose is made of wood or annual plants with this chemical process. Pieces of wood is treated with chemicals when exposed to high temperature and pressure.

  • Copy paper / paper for laser printers

    Paper, which is absolutely suitable for the requirements of copiers. Both  for copying and laser printing in a short time there are temperature to 200 ‘C. This requires that the paper, in particular, should  have increased resistance to high temperatures, as well as special smoothness, humidity, and terrain.
    This paper has a lower moisture content than offset paper (relative humidity – 30 to 35%).

  • Cross cutting

    The method of paper finishing. Firstly, paper and cardboard are cut in the machine for cross-cut in the longitudinal direction, then perpendicular to the direction of paper passage, making formats of desired size. Depending on grammage, several rolls of paper can be cut.

  • Cutting / Cutting Edge

    Firstly, paper, which was cut on the format, is cut on the cutting machines in the longitudinal direction, with a help of special knives. Then, the cross-cutting with rotating knifes or cutting machines for cross-cutting of paper is made.  The important quality characteristics of cutting are tear such, no fringe, accurate format, squareness.

  • Defect (spoilage)

    Paper, which is due to defects or sawed-off edges were discarded in the process. It can be re-used in the manufacturing process to produce quality goods.

  • Depreciation of equipment

    Premature deterioration of parts of the equipment due to dust, sediment components of paper or abrasive (abrasive) materials.

  • Digital Printing

    Printing technology, which works entirely due to the electronics and computers without the traditional preprinting preparation. The data is transmitted to the printing unit in digital form.

  • Direction of paper tide

    The direction in which paper goes through the paper machine during the manufacturing process.  In this case paper fibers are arranged on the longitudinal grid mainly parallel to (along) the direction of the tide. The direction of the paper tide has value for the customers (printing houses, bookbinders) because the paper fibers stretch to varying degrees in the longitudinal and transverse directions on exposure to atmospheric moisture.

  • Drying (drier) section

    This part of the paper machine follows the wet part of the paper machine. With a help of felts endless paper tape is sent to several heated rollers. Due to this, the tape is dehydrated and strengthened.

  • Duplex copying

    The second side of paper where two-sided copying was made.

  • Dyes

    Are added to the pulp to give it the color throughout its thickness. Dyes can also be used for coating (coated paper), and in the glue pressing (painting the surface). In this case, the paper is colored only with the coated side.

  • Ecological symbols

    Neutral symbols, which are designed to improve the awareness of consumers and users, as well as for the simultaneous creation of incentives and guidelines to optimize environmental properties of products.

  • Endless ribbon of paper

    Roll paper for printing machines between 40 and 80 g/m2, in most cases, wood-free, but also paper with different content of recycled fiber.

  • Ennoblement

    is an addition of special materials or surface treatment of paper to give it special properties (e.g., wet-strength paper, siliconised paper, coated paper, chalk overlay paper).

  • Exudation

    It is an exudation of different adjacent colors into each other printing while using Inkjet printing method (Inkjet).

  • Fibrous materials

    Fibrous materials – it is important raw material for paper making. Along with fresh fiber (wood pulp, cellulose) and secondary fibers (waste), other fibrous materials such as rags, weeds, straw or hemp can be used.

  • Fillers

    In the process of paper production,  the number of organic and inorganic substances, which are attached to the fibers, are added to improve specific properties of paper{eg, brightness, opacity, flexibility, etc.)

  • Finishing

    Finishing is post-processing of paper on supplying enterprise, for example, cutting, division into piles, packing.

  • Fir humidity

    Paper is very sensitive to fluctuations in humidity. Therefore, for the storage of paper it is very important  to constant microclimate (humidity and temperature). For the process of recycling paper relative humidity of about 50-55% at a temperature of about 20-22 ° C are favorable.

  • Fixation with the high temperature

    Toner, which is in copiers / printers, under heat is overlaid on the surface of the paper and fixed.

  • Flotation technology

    This technology stands ink out of the waste paper.

  • Folding

    The fold appears because of the tension on the surface of outer side with the simultaneous compression of internal side. During the development of layout of printed products, we should ensure that the fold did not pass through the areas with the seal. In the case of high grammage paper it is recommended to make preliminary creasing to avoid the appearing of crease during folding. Moisture and direction of the paper passage play the crucial role.

  • Folio (format into the second beat)

    U.S. paper format 210 x 330 mm or Extra-large format is called “folio.”

    Extra-large paper formats:

    Half-format 2000 – 3500 cm2

    Large format more than 3500 cm2

  • Fresh fiber

    Also called as the primary fiber. It is fresh vegetable fibers to make new paper. It is obtained by mechanical (wood pulp) or chemical processing (pulp).

  • Glue press

    Paper passes through a pair of rollers, to which glue and other auxiliaries are added from the enter side.
    Thanks to applying adhesive on both sides of the paper sheet in the paper machine,  improving the  paper surface is achieved, its flatness, and print quality. On coated paper it is first applied  a number of primary layers of glue.

  • Gluing of surface

    To give the best printing paper properties (including offset printing), to make it resist the abrasion, to make paper dense and greaseproof, an extra layer of glue is applied on the finished (glued) paper  in the glue press of paper machine.

  • Grades of longevity (see also “Resistance to aging”)

    Coated and uncoated paper and paperboard are classified according  to longevity. Grades are introduced by standard DIN 6738, January 1999.

  • Grid side

    The side that during the formation of the sheet is turned to the grid (the opposite side is the front side). It can be often recognized by the mark of metallic sieve on the paper. It has less fillers, as they are drawn by the sieve.

  • Haptic

    The doctrine of the skin reception. The industry for the production of paper indicates the quality of paper to the touch by means of this concept.

  • Hotpressing

    Polishing of paper surface in the calendar to achieve a certain surface characteristics (see calendar).

  • Inkject printer

    During the inkjet printing, tiny droplets of liquid ink spray onto the paper. Droplets form the printed image. Inkjet printers need paper with a special surface treatment that provides fast ink absorption. Currently, this is achieved by improving the quality of the paper or ink. There are three main ways of inkjet printing: bubble-jet printing, Piezo and continuous inkjet printing.

  • Inkjet Paper

    During the process of inkjet printing tiny drops of ink sprayed on paper, inkjet paper has a special quality of the surface, through which it absorbs moisture, and the paper  does not become “soft.” It dries quickly and ensures superior color – up to a point, and with regular lines.

  • ISO certificate

    Quality System Certificate ISO confirms that the company fulfills the program of the quality system in the issue of continuous improvement of customer service. The framework concept of DIN-ISO 9000 includes the following stages of execution of the program:

    DIN-ISO 9001 = stage of evidence of quality assurance for the development, design, manufacture, installation and customer service

    DIN-ISO 9002 = level of evidence of quality assurance for production and installation

    DIN-ISO 9003 = stage of evidence of quality assurance for the final test

    DIN-ISO 9004 – how to create a quality management and reporting of individual elements of the system of quality assurance.

    DIN-ISO 9001 – 9004 ensure that all organizational, commercial and technical activities, which affect the production, are planned, managed and controlled.

  • Kaolin

    Filler for paper making. This is a natural aluminum silicate containing moisture.

  • Lap of paper pulp

    Lap of paper pulp – is jet of paper pulp with the specified number and speed on the grid of paper machine.

  • Large format (size)

    Paper of a half-format or large format, are more than A3 (29,7 x 42.0), for example:
    59,4 x 84,1
    61 x 86
    84 x118, 9

  • Large sheet

    Paper sizes, starting from A3.

  • Level of whiteness

    The reflected from the sample paper light is measured under normal lighting conditions. Whiteness indicates the intensity of white. Through the use of optical brighteners whiteness can be greatly increased. Do not confuse it with chromaticity coordinates, which reflect the different color shades.

  • Lightfastness of paper

    It describes the stability of the optical properties with respect to light exposure. Colored paper should retain its color after exposure to UV light, and the white paper should not turn into yellow. But absolute protection from fading under the influence of natural light and heat does not exist. However, the raw material with no wood and appropriate pigments can slow the change of color tone.

  • Lignin

    Substance in plants, that is, in the wood as well, which connects the fibers and makes them hard. To get the fiber, lignin must be separated from the pulp. Lignin also leads to paper yellowing.

  • Machine finished paper

    Is the title of the paper, which directly calendered in the paper machine. To achieve a very high degree of smoothness paper can satin  additionally, after processing in a car.

  • Mass of unit area

    The hallmark of the “paper thickness.” Weight is for 1 square meter (=g/m2 )

    7 g/m2 – 150 g/m2 = paper

    150 g/m2 – 600 g/m2 = cardboard

    more than 600 g/m2 = cardboard

  • Millboard

    Generally it is thicker than usual cardboard. He is also stronger. There are different types of cardboard: the cardboard of machine production, folder cardboard, packing cartons, technical and special cardboard. The thickness is indicated in millimeters or in pieces 40th = 40 pieces format 75 x 100 cm 50 kg).

  • Moisture content

    Moisture content – the absolute moisture content is water content in paper, measured in weight percent (%)

  • Multipurpose paper grades

    This kind of paper can be used for different printing systems such as inkjet, copier / laser, offset. Such paper is easy to use and allows you to achieve good results in all applications.

  • Narrow band

    Denotes the main direction of the passage of the paper fibers in a sheet of paper. If the fibers are parallel to the longer edge of the sheet, it is called a narrow band. If the fibers are parallel to the shorter edge of the sheet, it is a broad band.  The direction of the passage is important for the further processing of paper.

  • Natural paper

    Natural paper – the common name of paper grades, made from plant, i.e. without synthetic fibers, which are not changed by the influence of coating or applying additional layers. It is also called as uncoated paper.

  • Net

    it is a  fabric from synthetic fibers, which is made in an infinite form. It is used for dewatering suspended fibers. The formation of paper sheet after lapping of pulp occurs here.

  • Offset paper

    By agreement between the printers and paper manufacturers, in the last decade we have developed many kinds of offset paper and paperboard of varying quality:  uncoated and coated, with the contents of timber and without it, matte and glossy, with high smoothness, glace and stamped. All of them have very durable surface (gluing), dimensional stability, chemical neutrality.

  • Offset printing

    Printing technology, which uses a staging environment to transfer the image onto paper. For  example, for this we use offset rubber sheets  which surround the cylinder. Currently, flat printing (offset printing) is the most common, as it combines excellent quality, high flexibility and simplicity in manufacture of originals.

  • Opacity

    Opacity denotes the opacity of the paper. If the print should be made on both sides of the paper, this property is very important.

  • Optical illuminators

    Optical illuminators are fluorescent substances which are added to the paper pulp or pulp for coating. They convert ultraviolet radiation into visible, blue light, so paper seems to be whiter in daylight.

  • Paper

    This is a name of a flat material, in German the word paper (Papier) comes from the word “papyrus.” According to DIN 6730 – is “f flat, consisting mainly of fibers in most cases, of vegetable origin,  substance that is produced by dewatering the suspension of fibers on the grid, thus there is a fibrous material which is then compressed and dried.”

  • Paper capacity

    In relation to the paper, capacity indicates the ratio between thickness of paper and its weight in g/m2. In case of paper with conventional treatment, with respect to its normal smoothness, we should say  1/1 or simple capacity. The more paper capacity is, the bigger its thickness (with the same weight per square meter).

  • Paper containing wood

    Paper, which is more than 5% is made from wood pulp by mechanical technologies. Depending on the proportion of wood pulp, it is called – with the content of the wood, with an average grade of wood, enhanced with an average grade of wood, with a low content of wood, almost-free timber. Paper containing wood is less durable than paper made from pure cellulose, it is more prone to yellowing and has a much smaller resistance to aging.

  • Paper formation

    With the help of light, directed on the paper, we can measure its structure and the degree of uniformity of fiber distribution. It is also called the clearance of paper.

  • Paper formats

    See “Formats DIN”

  • Paper formats according to DIN

    German industrial standards. In the standardization of paper formats three basic requirements must be performed:

    Original format = rectangle (size 1 m2)

    Each neighboring format must be prepared by halving or doubling. Each format must be “similar” to another in a geometric sense. According to the formula length: width = SQRT (2):1 we have size

    84.1 x 118.9 cm (approximately 10,000 cm2) for the original format. The formats DIN E (for finished paper products, such as envelopes, top sheets for documents, etc.), received after these calculations, are supplemented.

  • Paper weight

    See “Mass per unite surface”

  • Passability

    Passability denotes the passage in the copier. In this case deflexion, deformation on the diagonal, undulation, proper use of a sorting compartment and paper balking are measured.

  • Pre-printed paper

    This paper is made specifically for pre-printing (in most cases, offset), and the subsequent printing, using other methods (inkjet printing, laser printing / copying machine).  The humidity of this paper is much lower that helps to keep the original paper flatness after reprinting. But this paper is very sensitive to moisture of environment. To avoid trouble with this paper, it should be got out of the closed package only before using in the copier or laser printer.

  • Preservation of forests

    The concept of “preservation of forests” in forestry means that you can cut only that amount of trees which was grown.

  • Price per copy

    Price per copy (without price for paper).

  • Printing paper

    Any paper, both coated and uncoated (natural paper), which is suitable for printing. It should easily be used for different printing technologies.

  • Pulp

    Common name of fibers for papermaking.

  • Pulper

    The machine, which dissolves cellulose, wood or waste paper to obtain a substance that can be transported by a pump to supply the further processing.

  • Raw materials for paper production

    First of all, it is timber (through-cutting and fast-growing natural regeneration), moreover, waste paper (recycling). In addition, it is straw and textile waste.

  • Ream

    Descended from the Arabic word “rizma”, unit for measuring the amount of format paper. It denotes a variable number of sheets of paper which are packed in paper for packaging stacks.

  • Recycled fibers

    Fibers, which have already been used in the manufacture of paper and paperboard (DIN 6730/A1).

  • Recycled paper

    Paper, which is made up of 100% of waste paper with print and / or paper residue without printing.

  • Refiner (disc mill)

    In most cases, conical mill, in which the fibers are ground, is intended for the manufacture of paper. In this case, the pulp is squeezed between the stationary and rotating blades. Depending on the location of knives, you can get “shortening” or “fibrillated” grist.

  • Relative humidity

    Ratio (in%) between the amount of water vapor, which is currently present in the atmosphere, and the maximum amount of water vapor, which air can absorb  at the current temperature {saturation} (eg, 45% relative humidity).

  • Resistance to aging

    Resistant to aging paper offers the following factors:

    Natural paper or base paper for coating, made of bleached pulp

    value ph – 7.5 to 9

    percentage of calcium carbonate – not less than 3%

    These requirements are established by DIN-ISO 6738 standart. They define the characteristics that paper and cardboard should perform to match a particular class of durability (CSC). This standard is applied to paper and cardboard, which, for example, in the form of documents and books should be used in a long time.

  • Sheet

    It refers to all flat formats smaller than DIN A3. For larger sizes the designation “large sheet” is used.

    Front (felt)side
    The top side of the paper is called the front (felt) side. But thanks to the continuous improvement of production technologies for most paper grades sides have almost the same quality of the surface.

  • Sheet formation

    The uniform distribution of the fibers in the sheet. When viewed in the light, it indicates that the sheet was formed well.

  • Small format

    Paper format DIN A4 (210 x 297 mm) and DIN A3 (297 x 420 mm).

  • Smoothness

    The nature of the paper surface is somewhat uneven. Due to the glossy is paper machine and calenders (satin finishing) surface quality can be improved by mechanical means.
    There are several methods for measuring the smoothness:

    Measurement method using an air jet no Bekk (DIN 53107)
    Control roughness Bendtsen (DIN 53108)
    The method of PPS (Parker Print-Surf)
    Measurement of depth of asperities
    The contact method (FOGRA)
    The process of scanning (scanning process Kunz-Lippke)

  • Sorter

    Sorter is thedevice to collate copies.

  • Stock preparation

    Treatment of fibers (as well as the mixing of fibers and additives in proportions) that matches the quality of the paper produced on a paper machine.

  • Strength

    Strength of the paper depends on the raw material, which was used to make paper, and the mass per unit area. It can be measured, for example, on the tensile strength at break (“breaking length”) and the fracture resistance of the paper with a help of corresponding control devices.

  • Surface strength

    Surface strength  describes paper  resistance to the force which acts vertically to the surface. This force can be, for example, the impact strength of the ink on the paper during its transfer to the paper.

  • Tambour

    The metal shaft, which the paper web is wound on after leaving the paper machine. For the more convenient transportation, cutting and printing, paper from the “tambour” is rewound into smaller rollers, depending on the desired paper format.

  • Tensile strength

    Criterion of the paper quality. With a help of it you can check what strain the paper can withstand before it breaks.

  • Test for exudation

    From every roll of paper, which is being tested, we cut the sheet of A4 format. Then it is used to print on an inkjet printer.  The test pattern with color blocks, located next to each other, is used for printing. So we rank the bleed of inks of different colors into each other.

  • Two sidedness of paper

    Produced with fourdrinier paper machine paper is distinguished with a definite two sidedness. Dehydration in one direction leads to an uneven distribution of fillers, small fibers and dyes. Two sidedness can be largely eliminated by the use of upper nets or the molding plants.

  • Wastepaper

    In quantitative terms it is the most important raw material for paper production. But waste paper can be used in production not for all paper grades. Waste paper is not the only raw material for manufacture of paper and paperboard. The quality of fibers becomes worse after every reuse, so you need to add some fresh fibers to avoid the “collapse due to the use of recycled materials.”

  • Water

    Important, in particular, and for the process of pulp and paper material manufacturing. Thanks to modern technology (closed circuit water) water consumption in paper mills greatly reduced. Wastewater is treated in biological treatment plants in accordance with the strictest regulations for environmental protection.

  • Watermarks

    Signs / patterns in the paper, which can be seen through. Thus, it points to the origin and quality of the paper.
    The following watermarks:
    – persistent watermark: arises from the substitution of fibers and / or enrichment of dandy roll already in the grid of the paper machine
    – half-persistent watermark: results from the stamping of finished, still wet paper sheet roll by pressure method of engraving rollers.
    – simulated watermark: results from the additional stamping or colorless sealing

  • Wet part of paper machine

    This is the part of paper machine in which paper is still wet. It consists of the following units: lap of the paper pulp on the grid, grid, dewatering zone, suction and compression. After that the paper is transferred to drying cylinders.

  • Wide band

    Designation of the main direction of the fiber. Short edge of the sheet is paralleled to the direction of machine running (writing: 297 x 420 mm BB oder DIN A3 BB).

  • Wood pulp

    As a result of the strong compression of wood trunks on a rotating grind stone groundwood pulp is obtained. It contains almost 100% of raw materials and substances that cause yellowing (lignin), and is less resistant than cellulose. Therefore, it is used only with short-term goals.

  • Wood-free paper

    This paper is made of bleached and unbleached pulp, which shall contain not more than 5% of wood fiber (wood pulp). This is a cellulose fiber, which by chemical technology is made of wood. Wood-free paper does not contain lignin.